The Anti-allergic Effects of Maitake Mushrooms

A study based on a recent collaborative investigation with Professor Hirasawa of the, Tohoku University Graduate School for a pharmacy graduate course on lifestyle-related disease treatment, has shown that Maitake mushrooms may have the potential to reduce allergy symptoms.

 

Effect of the action of the mast cells and Maitake

When Antigens, such as pollen, invade the human body, via a mucous membrane, mast cells secrete histamines and cause an allergic reaction.

At the same time, mast cells secrete inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13, and activate immune cells surrounding it to promote inflammation.

In this study, it was revealed that Maitake mushrooms, in combination with the secretion of histamines from mast cells, control gene expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13. In other words, they have the potential to act as an anti-inflammatory agent.

 

Experimental method

In this experiment, we used a fat soluble ingredient which extracted the ethanoic extract of each mushroom in ethyl acetate.

We then added the extract of each mushroom to a rat-originated mast cell line (RBL-2H3) and performed antigen stimulation in a culture for 20 minutes.

For the experiment, we used DNP-HSA (dinitrophenyl – human serum albumin) as an antigen.

After 40 minutes of antigen stimulation, the Histamine density in the culture fluid was measured; 4 hours later, IL-4, which is an inflammatory cytokine, and IL-13 were measured to ascertain their expression level.

 

Experimental result

Mast cells given Maitake extract in advance significantly restrained the histamine secretion amount after antigen stimulation.

In addition, the gene expression level of IL-4 and IL-13 of inflammatory cytokine was significantly controlled.

Histamine secretion amount after antigen stimulationn=3, *There is a significant difference between the contrast.P<0.01

 

The above results show that Maitake mushroom extract can be expected to improve the symptoms of allergic reactions, such as hay fever.

 

The above results of the study were presented at the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 133th Annual Meeting (2013)

Vitamin D

What is Vitamin D?
What role does it play in the functioning of your body?

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a nutrient which are available in food products and is crucial for the maintenance of your strong bones and overall health of your body. Vitamin D can help the body to absorb calcium (from food and other supplements), which is the main building block for the skeletal system and bones health.

In addition, the presence of vitamin D is important for the function of the body as it helps nerves carry messages from the brain to other body parts and muscles. Vitamin D plays a role in aiding the immune system to combat the invading viruses and bacterias. Due to its importance, almost all the cells in your body contain vitamin D.

Vitamin D and calcium can combine to help older ones, who have a tendency of developing thin, brittle and soft bones ,through a medical condition known as osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children and small babies, to develop stronger bones. 
Reference: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health – Vitamin D

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The Beneficial Effects of King Trumpet on Constipation

We investigated the effects of bowel movements of women who have chronic constipation by  having them ingest cooked King Trumpet mushrooms (Eryngii). The ingestion of King Trumpet mushrooms might cause an increase of the frequency of defecation and improvements of bowel movement and character of stool. Women who have chronic constipation to the number of 15 (45.3 years of mean age) had a meal added 50g of cooked King Trumpet mushrooms for 30 consecutive days on breakfast and lunch time, respectively. Then, they filled out a questionnaire seeking information about changes of the frequency of defecation, bowel movement and character of stool.

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The Role of King Trumpet in Body Fat Reduction

An overview of obesity and metabolic syndrome

According to The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), “Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk factors that raises your risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke. The term “metabolic” refers to the biochemical processes involved in the body’s normal functioning. Risk factors are traits, conditions, or habits that increase your chance of developing a disease. Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a rise in obesity rates among adults.”  – NHLBI / Metabolic Syndrome

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The Vivacity of Vitamin B

Mushrooms are not just filled with ‘vitamin D’, but also contain an abundance of ‘vitamin B’!

Because of their exposure to sunlight, mushrooms are loaded with vitamin D. But did you know that they are rich in vitamin B too?

Here are some of  vitamin B’s many beneficial qualities on overall health.

Some of the benefits of vitamin B:

  1. Research shows that vitamin B helps boost metabolism and prevent the risk of strokes!
  2. Vitamin B1 helps prevent Beriberi, which is a nutritional deficiency disorder (lack of vitamin B1) that results in difficulty with walking, or even paralysis of the lower part of the leg.
  3. Vitamin B2 can increase energy, improve the immune system, clear acne, and prevent muscle cramps.
  4. Vitamin B3 helps lower cholesterol.
  5. Vitamin B5 aids in producing essential hormones in the body and is also required for growth.
  6. Vitamin B6 helps reduce the possibility of heart diseases, and is necessary to build new red blood cells.
  7. You can fight anemia with the help of vitamin B12. It helps to sustain healthy nerve cells, and also aids in constructing blood cells in the body.
  8. Vitamin B is also important for preserving healthy and youthful skin, hair, nails and eyes.

 

Because vitamin B is water soluble and cannot be stored by the body, it is important to eat food rich in vitamin B like mushrooms.

Vitamin B1

What is the role of thiamine or vitamin B1?

Vitamin B1, the first member of the vitamin B complex family, is an essential nutrient for the body. 

Vitamin B1 is required by the body to establish ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is used by cells, in the body, to release energy.

Vitamin B1 aids in changing carbohydrates to glucose. In other words, it transforms foods consumed, into energy that the body requires. In addition, it also helps break down fats and protein.

Thiamine helps to promote a healthy and active nervous system, and also improves the functioning of the heart.

Also known as the “anti-stress” vitamin, vitamin B1 vitamins helps the body to withstand intense stress and helps to promote healthy hair, skin, mouth, liver and eyes.

 

Lack of vitamin B1 may cause diseases such as:
  • You might suffer from both dry and wet varieties of Beriberi.
  • Alcoholics might experience severe brain abnormalities such as the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
  • Possibilities of Anorexia.
  • Heart failure and increased heart rate.
  • Congestion in the lungs.
  • Burning and prickling sensation in the feet and toes.
  • Abnormal development of nerves and muscles.
  • Frequent fatigue and psychological depression.
  • Nausea and headaches.
  • Discomfort in abdomen.
  • Chances of developing cataracts.
  • Elevated possibility of getting Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Vitamin B1 might be created exclusively in fungi, bacteria and plants despite all living creatures needing it. It is an important nutrient for humans because, like all other animals, they need to acquire it through their diet. While a deficiency in mammals leads to optic neuropathy, Korsakoff’s syndrome and Beriberi disease, which attacks the cardiovascular system and/or the peripheral nervous system, in birds, polyneuritis is far more common due to the lack of vitamin B1. If left untreated, a deficiency might even prove to be fatal. In cases which are not severe, there might be occurrences of weight loss, confusion, malaise and irritability.

Thiamine mononitrate, which is non-hygroscopic, is the Vitamer which has been employed for food and flour fortification. Vitamin B1 is on the list of one of the most crucial medications required in a rudimentary health system, namely, the List of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organization.

When thiamine became the first water soluble vitamin to be detected, many more such trace compounds necessary for the survival were gradually discovered .

A surgeon general who worked in the Japanese navy by the name of Kanehiro Takaki had refused the earlier germ theory attributed to beriberi and contemplated that it was caused due to deficiencies in diet. He discovered that when he switched the diet of white rice to a diet consisting of bread, meat, barley, milk and vegetables, he was able to reduce beriberi on a navy ship on a voyage. But having randomly added food products into the diet which was successful, he wrongly thought that the beriberi was cured due to the increased intake of nitrogen.

However, in 1905, anti beriberi factor was found in brown barley rice and rice bran and Takaki’s efforts were appreciated finally. He was made a baron in the peerage system of Japan and Takaki was henceforth known as the ‘Barley Baron.’

 

Vitamin B1

(100g/mg)

0.15

0.075

0

0.05

Bunashimeji

0.12

Bunapi

0

King Trumpet

0

King Trumpet

0.08

White Mushrooms

0.07

lettuce

0.07

tomato

0.08

potato

Buna
shimeji

Bunapi

King Trumpet

Maitake

White
Mushroom

Lettuce

Tomato

Potato

Vitamin B2

What is the role of riboflavin or vitamin B2?

The second member of the complex vitamin B family, vitamin B2 or riboflavin, is water soluble and cannot be accumulated in our body. Vitamin B2 needs to be consumed daily because it is an important part of a nutritious diet.

 

 Vitamin B2 :
  • Plays an important role in the energy production in the body.
  • Promotes the production of red blood cells.
  • Controls growth and maturation of reproductive organs and is necessary for normal growth of the body.
  • Protects the digestive tract, supports healthy fetal development, boosts immunity levels, improves mineral absorption and helps to rebuild tissues.
  • Some studies have shown that vitamin B2 may help to slow the progression of AIDS.
  • It may also help to improve your vision and protect your eyes.
  • It may help fight migraine attacks.
  • Can help regulate thyroid activity.
  • Ensures healthy bowel movements.
  • B2 vitamins play a role by supplying antioxidants to fight off free radicals in the body, and may help to prevent cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

 

Lack of vitamin B2 may cause:
  • a feeling of weakness in the body or soreness in other body parts.
  • Swelling in the throat .
  • Blood in deficiency, most particularly, red blood cell deficiency which can progress to anemia in extreme circumstances.
  • Eyesight may suffer if the body lacks in vitamin B2. It may result in bloodshot, blurred vision and light sensitivity and eys may become itchy and start watering.
  • Skin diseases like acne and dermatitis are common.
  • There is a greater probability of throat and mouth infections.
  • Mood can be affected such as frequent irritability and depression.
  • Fatigue 
  • Development of burning feet syndrome.
  • Cervical cancer, a prevalent concern for women who lack vitamin B2.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • The tongue to slowly turn to the color of magenta.
  • Decreased immunity levels.
  • Swelling and fissures.
  • Cracks to begin forming in the corner of your mouth.
Additional Concerns: 
  • Older ones are at a higher risk to suffer from vitamin B2 deficiency. 
    Because some people tend to lose appetite when they get older, the lack of a nutritious diet occurs and it leads the lack of Vitamin B2.
  • Alcoholics also tend to suffer from vitamin B2 deficiency.

You can easily avoid the risk of developing a deficiency of vitamin B2 by making sure to  consume balanced meals.

 

Vitamin B2

(100g/mg)

0.3

0.15

0

0.27

Bunashimeji

0.27

Bunapi

0.18

King Trumpet

0.27

King Trumpet

0.08

lettuce

0.08

tomato

0.03

potato

Buna
shimeji

Bunapi

King Trumpet

Maitake

Lettuce

Tomato

Potato

Vitamin B3

What is the role of Niacin or Vitamin B3?

The third member of the vitamin B complex family, vitamin B3 or niacin (nicotinic acid), also has 2 other variations called niacin amide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate.

 

The roles of vitamin B3 in the body

  • It may aid in :
    – nervous system 
    – digestive system
    – skin
    – proper brain function
    – promotes healthy skin
    – improves memory
    – regulates proper blood circulation
    – controls and lowers cholesterol levels in your body
  • It also may help breakdown :
    – carbohydrates
    – proteins
    – fats
    -And transforms them into energy

  • It may be important for :
    – sexual wellness
    – producing sex hormones in the body
    And may help fight disorders like impotence and erectile dysfunction
  • It may improve :
    – mental health
    – lower blood pressure levels
    – lessen body inflammation
    -treat acne

 

Lack of vitamin B3 may cause various diseases including pellagra.

  • Vitamin B3 deficiency is also associated with :
    – memory loss
    – motion sickness
    – increased sensitivity to sunlight

 

Vitamin B3 / Niacin

(100g/mg)

6

3

0

5.2

Bunashimeji

5

Bunapi

5.2

King Trumpet

4.2

Maitake

3.6

White Mushrooms

0.3

lettuce

0.5

tomato

1

potato

Buna
shimeji

Bunapi

King Trumpet

Maitake

White
Mushroom

Lettuce

Tomato

Potato

Vitamin B12

What is the role of vitamin B12?

Another member of the vitamin B complex family is vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin and is one of the essential vitamins. However, because vitamin B12 is not abundant in many vegetables, vegetarians and vegans resort to vitamin B12 supplements or food fortified with B12. Mushrooms are a great source of vitamin B12 and a natural alternative to supplements.

“Vitamin B12 is a nutrient that:

  • helps keep the body’s nerve and blood cells healthy
  • helps make DNA, the genetic material in all cells”. – od.nih.gov

Vitamin B12 may boost energy and endurance levels and might help prevent heart diseases and strokes.

Lack of vitamin B12 may cause conditions such as:
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Weakness
  • Constipation
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of weight and appetite
  • Depression,
  • Anxiety
  • Confusion
  • Dementia

 

Vitamin B12

(100g/mcg)

0.25

0.125

0

0.22

Bunashimeji

0.19

Bunapi

0

King Trumpet

0.15

King Trumpet

0.04

White Mushrooms

0

lettuce

0

tomato

0

potato

Buna
shimeji

Bunapi

King Trumpet

Maitake

White
Mushroom

Lettuce

Tomato

Potato